using volatile variables

Locks offer two primary features:
1. mutual exclusion, and
2. visibility

Mutual exclusion means that only one thread at a time may hold a given lock, and this property can be used to implement protocols for coordinating access to shared data such that only one thread at a time will be using the shared data.

Visibility is more subtle and has to do with ensuring that changes made to shared data prior to releasing a lock are made visible to another thread that subsequently acquires that lock — without the visibility guarantees provided by synchronization, threads could see stale or inconsistent values for shared variables.

Volatile variables share the visibility features of synchronized, but none of the atomicity features. This means that threads will automatically see the most up-to-date value for volatile variables. They can be used to provide thread safety, but only in a very restricted set of cases: those that do not impose constraints between multiple variables or between a variable’s current value and its future values.

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